NATIONAL JEWELER 61 GETHER ruby, sapphire, emerald, Paraiba tourmaline and red spinel in polished, rough, loose or mounted form. Shane McClure, GIA’s global director of colored stone services, says the insti- tute started origin determination around 2006, opting to provide it based on market needs and slowly expanding the service over time to include different gemstones as research has allowed. While GIAoriginally was not in favor of providing it as a service, Mc- Clure says the industry went on to do it anyway and so GIAgot on board. “[We] decided at some point that this is here to stay—and it is—so we might as well provide that to the best of our ability to the trade.” GIA stresses that all of its origin reporting is based on science and backed by research. For color, GIA uses only pigeon’s blood (for rubies) and royal blue (for sapphires) on reports, which McClure also says was based on market needs. GIA has no plans to expand beyond the use of these two terms at this point. He adds there’s more demand for these terms in Asian markets than in the West, which helps to explain the approach taken by two Thailand-based gem labs. The Bangkok-based Asian Institute of Gemological Sciences (AIGS) reports on origin, when possible, and trade names of colors— if the client requests. Chairman Kennedy Ho says, in his opinion, neither are needed in a report but he did not elaborate on the lab’s choice to include them. Another lab in the same city offers similar services. Gemologist Richard Hughes opened Lotus Gemology in Bangkok in 2014.When he and his team did so, “we were told by several potential customers, in no uncertain terms, that if we did not offer origins and appearance types, they would not send us stones for testing,” he says. Four years later, there’s no going back. “Now origins are so entrenched in the market that all labs must offer this service or they will go broke,” Hughes says. In New York, the American Gemological Laboratories has differ- ent levels of reporting. All submitted materials receive identification and enhancement details. Upon request, AGL also provides an opinion on the country of origin for select gem varieties. Additionally, AGL offers a full grading report, which details a gem’s color, clarity and cut. AGL does not include color nomenclature beyond pigeon’s blood or royal blue on its reports. Instead,AGL offers the potential for additional documents on spe- cial or exclusive items, says President Christopher Smith, allowing for more details on the stone: quality and characteristics, as well as origin and, when appropriate, the reference to certain color terms. A Colored Stone Identification Report from the Gemological Institute of America